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Health, illness and disease

Health, Illness and Disease Vocabulary

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pain
feeling in your body when you have been hurt or when you are ill,sick

  • Suddenly she felt a sharp pain in her neck, shoulder, waist, arm, leg, stomach.
  • Take an aspirin to relieve the pain.

ache
continuous pain; feel a continuous pain

  • I can’t sleep because my head aches too bad.
  • I have a terrible headache, backache, stomach-ache.

ill
suffering from an illness or disease; not feeling well; sick

  • My elder sister is seriously ill in St John’s hospital.
  • The children started to feel ill an hour after the meal.

sick
physically or mentally ill; wanting to vomit

  • I feel very sick, I don’t think I can work today.
  • Be careful with the cake, too much of it can make you sick.

sore
painful (and often red) because of infection or because a muscle has been used too much

  • I have a sore throat, I mustn’t take that cold drink.
  • She says her stomach is still sore after the operation.
  • His feet were sore after the bicycle trip.

illness
the state of being physically or mentally ill

  • Our secretary missed a lot of work through illness last month.
  • Flu can be a serious illness if you aren’t careful enough.

disease
serious illness, often caused by infection

  • Peter’s uncle suffers from a rare blood disease.
  • A fatty diet increases the risk of heart disease.
  • The government is planning further health measures to prevent the spread of disease.

heal
become healthy again; make something, somebody healthy again, make somebody feel happy again

  • As I see it will take a long time for your wounds to heal.
  • This ointment will help to heal your scratches.
  • The tea you made really healed me.

cure
make somebody or something healthy again after an illness; make an illness go away

  • He was seriously ill for a long time, but the doctor cured him at last.
  • Scarlet fever is a serious illness, but it can be cured fairly fast.

cure
medicine or medical treatment that cures an illness; the act of curing or the process of being cured

  • There is no known cure for this illness but the it can be treated.
  • I’m afraid you must be taken to hospital for the cure.

treat
give medical care or attention to somebody or something; deal with something or somebody

  • I was treated for flu, but later I was diagnosed with pneumonia.
  • This illness is usually treated with antibiotics and a strict diet..

treatment
(the way or process of) curing an illness or injury or making somebody look and feel good; the way of dealing with something or somebody

  • Doctors apply various treatments for this illness.
  •  My sister goes to a wellness centre to receive beauty treatments.

diagnose
define what an illness or the cause of a problem is

  • The blood test is used to diagnose all kinds of diseases.
  • She was diagnosed (as) (a) diabetic in her early childhood.

diagnosis
medical description of an illness or condition

  • The doctors didn’t share every detail of the diagnosis with the patient’s family.
  • We had to wait a lot for the exact diagnosis after the examination.

injury
harm done to the body, for example in an accident

  • They were lucky to escape the fight without serious injuries.
  • There were only minor injuries in the crash.

injure
harm somebody or yourself physically, especially in an accident, receive/suffer an injury

  • He injured his finger when he was cutting the meat.
  • Nobody was killed in the accident, but two people were seriously injured.

wound
an injury to part of the body, especially one in which a hole is made in the skin

  • He died from the wounds that he had received in the crash.
  • He was taken to hospital although his wounds didn’t seem too serious.

cut
a wound caused by something sharp

  • He had such a deep cut on his arm that he was taken to hospital.
  • The victim had several cuts on his chest, still he survived.

bruise
a blue, brown or purple mark on the skin after somebody has fallen

  • He was covered in bruises at the end of the football match.
  • The man came to the surgery with a huge bruise over his eye.

scratch
rub your skin with your nails, usually because it’s itching; a mark or a small cut or injury made by scratching

  • The cat continuously scratched itself behind the ear.
  • She had a long scratch on her arm when she came out of the rose garden.

infection
illness caused by bacteria or a virus; the act or process of causing or getting a disease

  • Wash your hands carefully to decrease the risk of infection.
  • She almost died from blood infection.

inflammation
a condition when a part of the body becomes red, sore and swollen because of infection or injury

  • My knee was twice the size of the other one due to the inflammation.
  • You had better not eat fatty food so soon after your stomach inflammation.

symptom
a change in your body or mind that shows that you are not healthy

  • You don’t necessarily need a doctor with symptoms like a headache or sore throat.
  • Depression can cause physical symptoms, too.

temperature
the measurement of how hot your body is

  • have a temperature – when your temperature is higher than normal due to illness
  • I feel so weak, I think I have a temperature.
  • She had such a high temperature that she was immediately taken to hospital.

fever
a medical condition in which someone has a temperature that is higher than normal; a particular type of disease with high temperature

  • Did you take aspirin to reduce the fever?
  • Our daughter has been diagnosed with scarlet fever.

cold
illness affecting the nose and/or throat, making you cough and/or sneeze

  • I think I caught a cold on the ice rink yesterday.
  • She can’t come to school, she’s in bed with a cold.

flu
a very bad cold, an infectious disease with fever, pains and weakness

  • Please don’t visit us this week, the whole family has the flu.
  • If you’re not careful enough and you don’t take antibiotics, you may even die from the flu.


vomit
discharge stomach contents through the mouth

  • There must have been something wrong with the food as both children vomitedshortly after the meal.
  • I’m afraid I’m pregnant; I vomit after getting up every morning.

medicine
a substance that you drink or swallow so as to cure an illness

  • You look so pale. Haven’t you taken your medicine this morning?
  • The doctor prescribed three kinds of medicine for me.

antibiotics
medicine that kills bacteria and cures infections

  • My mum’s throat infection went away after she started the antibiotics.
  • Hot tea won’t be enough to cure your flu, I think you also need antibiotics.

pain killer
kind of medicine that takes away some or all of the discomfort of an illness or injury

  • I had such a horrible headache last night that I took two pain killers.
  • She says she doesn’t think it’s a good idea to take pain killers too often.

blood pressure
the rate at which blood flows through the body

  • Drink some coffee if you feel your blood pressure is too low.
  • High blood pressure increases the risk of having a heart attack.

pulse
the regular beat of blood as it is sent around the body

  • The doctor started the examination with taking my pulse and blood pressure.
  • He has such a weak pulse that it’s hard to feel.

x-ray
a photograph of a somebody’s bones and organs

  • They took x-rays of my knee to make sure it wasn’t broken.
  • The doctor says that the x-ray has proved his suspicion of cancer, but I don’t believe him.

patient
a person staying in a hospital or medical facility

  • The doctor examined the patient very carefully but he didn’t find any disorder.
  • There were so many patients in the doctor’s surgery that I didn’t wait and I went home.

surgery
a place where a doctor or dentist sees patients; medical treatment of injuries or diseases involving cutting open somebody’s body

  • I wanted to see a doctor but the surgerywas closed.
  • I hope they can cure me with medicine and I don’t need undergo surgery.

operation
cutting open a part of somebody’s body in order to remove or cure a part

  • The operation was successful but the patient died.
  • The doctor says I can hardly escape an operation.

operate on somebody (for something)
cut open a part of somebody’s body in order to remove or cure a part

  • He soon recovered after he was operated on for appendicitis.
  • The doctor ordered to take my brother to hospital and they will operate on himtomorrow.

operating theatre
a room in a hospital used for medical operations

  • The patient died on the way to the operating theatre.
  • She felt nervous as she looked round the operating theatre.

chemist’s (shop)
a shop where medicine is sold

  • The doctor suggested to go to the chemist’s for the medicine straight from the surgery.
  • This syrup is also sold in the supermarket, so you don’t need to go to the chemist’s.

prescription
an official piece of paper filled out by a doctor with which you can get medicine from a chemist’s shop

  • Unfortunately, the doctor forgot to sign the prescription and so the chemist refused to give me the medicine. 
  • Keep this prescription even though you don’t need the medicine now; you may need it later. 

Illness expressions

  • feel ill, sick
  • have a temperature
  • have a pain in your back, chest, waist, arm, shoulder
  • have a headache
  • feel weak
  • feel dizzy
  • suffer from stomach cramps
  • have a black eye
  • have a swollen, sprained ankle, wrist, foot
  • have a lump
  • have a broken leg
  • have a fracture
  • burn, cut a finger
  • sprain an ankle
  • be allergic to antibiotics
  • produce an allergic reaction
  • come down with a cold
  • be in bed with a cold
  • have a heart attack, stroke
  • suffer from asthma, malnutrition, diabetes
  • fight cancer, depression, addiction, alcoholism
  • (go to) see a doctor
  • examine a patient
  • take, feel your pulse
  • take, measure your temperature
  • diagnose an illness, disease
  • diagnose a condition, disorder
  • prescribe medicine
  • make up a prescription
  • take someone to hospital
  • undergo an examination, operation
  • dress a wound
  • a bandaged arm, leg
  • put on a plaster
  • give an injection
  • have a blood test
  • prevent the spread of disease
  • enhance, build immunity to a disease

Common Illnesses and Diseases in English

  • flu
  • cold
  • diarrhoea
  • pneumonia
  • mumps
  • measles
  • chickenpox
  • scarlet fever
  • tonsillitis
  • bronchitis
  • indigestion
  • ulcer
  • appendicitis
  • hepatitis
  • heart attack
  • heart disease
  • stroke
  • arthritis
  • asthma
  • lung cancer
  • diabetes
  • amnesia
  • nervous breakdow

Medicine, Medical Equipments and Tools

    • pill
    • tablet
    • capsule
    • syrup
    • ointment
    • cream
    • eye drops
    • injection
    • tranquilizer
    • pain-killer
    • antiseptic
    • antifebrile
    • dressing
    • bandage
    • cast
    • brace
    • gauze
    • plaster
    • elastic tape
    • thermometer
    • stethoscope
    • syringe, forceps, scissors, oxygen mask, test tube, vial, IV bag, blood pressure monitor, crutches, wheelchair

Medical Specialists List

Nurse: doctor’s assistant
Allergist: treats food and environmental allergies
Anaesthesiologist: provides pain prevention during surgery
Cardiologist: heart specialist
Dentist: tooth specialist
Dermatologist: skin specialist
Gynecologist: specializes in women’s needs
Midwife: helps women deliver babies
Neurologist: brain specialist
Oncologist: tumour specialist
Ophthalmologist: deals with eye diseases
Pediatrician: treats babies and children
Physical therapist: specializes in the body’s movement
Psychiatrist: mental health specialist
Radiologist: specializes in imaging tests 

 

What to say at the doctor?

Going to Doctor

  • I think you should see a doctor.
  • You look very pale. Shall I call the ambulance?
  • I’m ill. I don’t feel well. I need a doctor. I must see a doctor.
  • Doctor Bulb’s surgery hours are from 9 to 12 every morning.
  • Where do I find the GP’s office? (general practitioner – a doctor who is trained in general medicine working in the local community)
  • What are the consulting hours of the ENT (ear, nose and throat) specialist?
  • Do I have to make an appointment?

Doctor’s Questions and Answers to Patient

  • What’s the matter? Where’s the pain? What do you complain of?
  • Have you taken your temperature?
  • For how long have you been feeling ill?
  • Take your clothes off. I’ll examine you. Let me take your pulse, please.
  • I’ll measure your blood pressure.
  • Your blood pressure is rather high. Your blood pressure is too low.
  • Let me sound your back. Take a deep breath. I’ll check your lungs.
  • Can I have a look? Where does it hurt?
  • Does it hurt here? Breath out slowly.
  • Show me your tongue. Poke out your tongue.
  • Have you got any other symptoms?
  • What infectious diseases have you had?
  • What have you eaten/drunk?
  • Have you been injured?
  • Don’t worry. There’s no serious problem.
  • I don’t think it’s too serious.
  • You’ve got to be vaccinated against tetanus.
  • You must stay in bed and take this medicine three times a day, after meals.
  • I’ll dress the wound and put a plaster on your arm.
  • You must follow a diet, you need to rest and you shouldn’t worry.
  • Your test results have come in. The blood test came back negative.
  • The biopsy shows a tumour.
  • You should consult a specialist.
  • We’ll know more in a few days.
  • It would be better if you went to hospital.
  • I think you’ll have to stay in hospital for a week.
  • Hopefully, there won’t be any complications.
  • I don’t think you need chemotherapy.
  • I’ll give you a prescription. Take this medicine three times a day / after meals / an hour before lunch.
  • You’ll soon be well again.
  • Come back next week if you don’t feel better.

Patient Symptoms 

  • I’ve got a high temperature.
  • I feel really rough. I’m shattered/exhausted.
  • Could you check my blood pressure? I’ve got high blood pressure.
  • There’s a sharp pain here. I’ve got a pain in my limbs.
  • I feel dizzy. I’ve got a kidney problem. I’ve lost weight.
  • I always feel bad after meals. I’ve got a stomach ache.
  • I’ve got a splitting headache. I often have nosebleeds.
  • I have diarrhoea. I’ve lost my appetite.
  • I’ve got circulation problems. I sweat all night.
  • My ears are buzzing. I’ve got an upset stomach.
  • I’ve sprained my wrist/ankle. My hand/foot is badly swollen.
  • I think I’ve pulled a muscle in my leg/arm.
  • I’ve had scarlet fever, mumps, the measles.
  • Is it something serious? Is this a common problem at my age?
  • When will the tests results come in? Are you going to run more tests?
  • Do I have to be operated on? Will I need surgery?
  • How long do I have to stay in hospital?
  • I hope there won’t be any complications.
  • Could you prescribe some medicine for me?
  • How often should I take this medicine?
  • Shall I come back next week if I don’t get better?

At the dentist’s

  • I’ve got a pain in my back teeth and my gum is bleeding.
  • I’ve lost a filling. My denture’s broken.
  • Does the tooth have to be extracted or can you replace the filling?

At the chemist’s

  • Would you make up this prescription for me?
  • Shake well before use. Not to be taken orally.
  • Can I get a packet of vitamin tablets? 

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